Frank Vrancken Peeters, Chief Commercial Officer of Springer Nature, said: “Springer Nature has been at the forefront of transformation agreements since 2014. Since then, we have monitored their impact on open access research, and we now know that OA articles are cited more often, downloaded more frequently and have a broader and broader impact. That is why we believe that they deserve the title of `transformative`, and we are therefore convinced that this arrangement will allow for greater visibility and use of German-funded research and that it will advance the overall objective of Open Science, given its size. 99% of what we do is project work, so each team member is called upon to achieve common goals, reach agreements together and work together simply productively. Yes, it`s a good swing… After a long process of agreement with the team of curators and the organizers, we chose the theme of “faith.” A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed today between MPDL Services on behalf of the DEAL project and Springer Nature is the preconditions for the world`s most comprehensive Open Access Agreement (OA), which is expected to be concluded before the end of the year. In 2 Timothy 3, we read that dangerous times will come in recent days. The agreement included the “current” activity, which included Soviet commitments for the supply of 180 million German marks to raw materials and the German obligation to deliver 120 million German marks of industrial products to the Soviets.    As part of the agreement, Germany also granted the Soviet Union a merchandise credit worth 200 million German marks over a 7-year period to be financed by Deutsche Gold-Discount-Bank.
 Credit should be used to finance Soviet “new business” in Germany to include machinery, industrial goods, war equipment and the hard currency.  This loan would be guaranteed by the German government at 100% with an interest rate of 5%.  However, the agreement contained a “confidential protocol” that annuls the German government`s 0.5% interest, which means that the effective rate is 4.5%.  Conditions were extremely favourable, 1.5 to 2.5% lower than the discount rates of the 1920s and early 1930s.  The Soviet Union began to sanitize credit with raw materials seven years later (from 1946).  In early 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union discussed the conclusion of an economic agreement.  In the spring and summer of 1939, the Soviets entered into a political and military pact with France and Britain, while discussing with German officials a possible Soviet-German political agreement.  On 7 April, Soviet diplomat Georgii Astakhov told the German Foreign Ministry that there was no sense in continuing the German-Soviet ideological struggle and that the two countries could agree.  Ten days later, Soviet Ambassador Alexei Merekalov met with German Secretary of State Ernst Weizsacker and asked him to quickly remove all obstacles to the performance of military contracts signed between Czechoslovakia and the USSR before the German occupation.  According to German reports, the ambassador said at the end of the discussion: “There is no reason for Russia not to live with us on a normal basis. And from a normal point of view, relations could improve.   Other sources claim that this could be an exaggeration or an inaccurate recount of the ambassador`s words.  Immediately after the meeting, the Soviet ambassador had been withdrawn to Moscow and never returned to Germany.
 Such an agreement was made possible by the recognition of the common commitment of both parties to the principle of open science: vision and open access to large-scale German research, Springer Nature`s position as OA`s largest publisher and its expertise as a pioneer of transformative agreements.